Worlds eminent scientists, short biographies are discussed here. Michael Faraday, Thomas A. Edison, Jonas Salk, Sir Ronald Ross, Sir Alexander Fleming and Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen were worlds, eminent scientists. These worlds eminent scientists, worked hard day and night to invent new things to make our life easy and comfortable.
Michael Faraday was a great inventor of electricity and electromagnetism. He was the son of a poor blacksmith. At the age of 13, his father engaged him in the bookbinding work. Faraday built his future by reading books that he used to bind. When fellow workers go to their house at night, Faraday used to read and understand books seriously before binding them.
Thomas A. Edison
Thomas Edison was a great American Inventor. He was not a good student in school. His mother taught him lessons at home. He made thousands of inventions and changed the life of man on this earth. During his childhood, he sold fruits, snacks, and newspapers on trains. He used to say– “My Success formula is one per cent inspiration and ninety-nine per cent perspiration”. The electric bulb was his great invention.
Thomas A. Edison
Jonas Salk was a great American physician and microbiologist. He had developed the polio vaccine. The development of the polio vaccine is a great service to mankind. Polio is a deadly disease caused by a virus. It was mainly to attack young children. Due to polio attack, many children are disabled. After a polio attack, not much can be done to recover and the victims are crippled for a lifetime. Salk collected the spinal fluids of polio victims, cultured them to obtain poliovirus and treated them with formaldehyde to destroy the ability of the virus to inflict polio. Salk was courageous and confident. His confidence was based on experience. He administered his vaccine to himself and his family. The Polio vaccine is now easy to administer. No injection is necessary, just a few drops are given orally. Salk did not patent his vaccine. He used to say– My research is for people. Could you patent the Sun?
Sir Ronald Ross
Sir Ronald Ross was a British scientist. However, he was born in British India. He discovered that a microbe ‘plasmodium’ causes malaria. Malaria is spread by the female Anopheles mosquito. Ross demonstrated that a bird injected with a dose of plasmodium suffers from malaria. he showed that human also acquires malaria in a similar way. The plasmodium enters the red blood cell of a human body, multiply within the cell and burst open to attack another blood cell. During this process, the patient shivers and get a high fever for two to three days. He becomes weak and may even die. Malaria is a killer disease. It is spread by the bite of mosquitoes. It can be stopped by preventing the breeding of mosquitoes into stagnant and accumulated water in our surrounding. Sir Ross discovered the life cycle of the mosquito. He was awarded the noble prize for his discovery.
Sir Alexander Fleming
Sir Alexander Fleming was a British scientist. He was in the period of onset of plague and cholera-like deadly epidemic, which were caused by bacteria. No curative drugs were available for these diseases. Fleming was experimenting on bacteria to discover a medicine to kill these bacteria. When growing the culture of bacteria in dishes, he found that the growth of certain mould stopped the growth of bacteria. He extracted certain chemicals from this mould and demonstrated their use in killing bacteria. The mould, Fleming used was a strain of fungus penicillium. He named the chemical secreted by this mould ‘penicillin’. This penicillin discovered by Fleming was not stable. The other two scientists worked further to make it stable, they got success. Fleming and these two scientists got the joint noble prize. Penicillin has a curative effect on various infectious diseases.
Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen was a German scientist. He discovered X-rays. An X-ray is a powerful tool in the medical diagnosis of diseases. X-ray pictures are used to locate bone fractures. The extent of injuries can be seen through X-ray pictures. Today trained radiologist is able to detect patches in the lungs. Ulcers in intestines and stones in the kidney. X-ray is also used widely in industry, for non-destructive testing of materials and to detect flaws in fabricated structural components before their actual use. X-ray pictures confirm the reliability of the material and component for use. X-rays are discovered by Rontgen when he was studying the passing of electricity in a cathode ray tube. He observed that cathode ray tube emit some unknown radiation which causes fluorescence on barium Platinocyanide screen, kept beside cathode ray tube. He was awarded the noble prize for his discovery.