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    THE WATER SCARCITY AND DROUGHT

     

    INTRODUCTION

    Our earth is covered by 3/4 part of water, however, still, water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide. Many countries in the African continent like Somalia, Sudan, and Ethiopia are facing acute water scarcity. Due to less or erratic rainfall and an increase in earth temperature, the topsoil of the earth is getting dried and farming has become difficult due to water scarcity. Due to water scarcity, there is a shortage of food stock for the community. Children are facing acute nutrition problems. Water scarcity is caused due to changes in the rainwater cycle, overpopulation urbanization, industrialization, and pollution. This is all happening due to climatic change.

    Water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide. It is caused due to pollution and climatic change. Water is the free gift of God to human beings. It is an essential commodity for a human being,
    without the use of water human Survival on this earth is beyond imagination. So is the case of Animal kingdom. All our day-to-day domestic activities like cleaning, washing, cooking, drinking, and many more are dependent on water. Even human blood plasma is consisted of about 90% water. All our body organs like the brain, kidney, and digestion system function on water. The deficient use of water starts the malfunctioning of our body organs. Hence water is our life, without water there is no life on this earth.

    Drought due to global warming
    Drought due to global warming

    The human race is responsible for bringing climatic change on this earth. To save the earth, we should eliminate the reasons behind the climatic change. The reasons behind the climatic changes are:

    (1) More industrialization

    The industrialization has polluted a large number of water bodies and the atmosphere on this earth. In the atmosphere, we are dumping a large number of greenhouse gases like CO2, Methane, Nitrous oxide, and Fluorinated gases which are causing an increase in the earth’s temperature. An increase in earth temperature is the main cause of climatic change. Climatic change is causing less rainfall in some parts of the world and floods in another part of the world. Our Focus must be on reducing pollution whether it is air pollution or water pollution.

    flooding due to global warming
    flooding due to global warming

    (2)  Population growth

    Population growth becomes a challenge to cater to the potable water need of the community. Water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide. On one hand, our food grain production is decreasing due to the climatic change. On the other hand drought and famine are causing. It is difficult to provide a sufficient quantity of foodstuff to the world community. Hence now it has become the need of the hour to take action to control the growth of the population.

    (3). Lavish use of deep underground water

    Use of deep underground water in domestic and industrial sectors without accountability to be reduced. Every house and industry is drawing water from deep underground. There should be a limit to draw deep underground water. Due to climatic changes rainfall is reduced in many areas of the world. This has caused less penetration and accumulation of water the deep underground. As we are drawing water from deep underground continuously, our deep underground water resource is depleting. Our earth’s topsoil is getting dried. It is feared that one day our earth will be dried due to profuse use of deep underground water.

    (4) Huge industrial and municipal wastewater

    Industrial and municipal wastewater to be recycled for irrigation, and recreation fields. A huge quantity of wastewater is generated during our industrial process. This is to be treated and recycled in farm irrigation as water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide. Similarly, a large quantity of wastewater is generated due to our day-to-day activities like washing, bathing, cleaning, and cleaning, same is to be treated in municipal water treatment plants and, then to be used for farm irrigation. This will save a large quantity of water for our future use.

    SOURCES OF WATER:  

    Glacier Water:

    Glaciers are our great source of potable water, however, nowadays they are depleting in size and decreasing our source of potable water. This is happening because of climatic changes occurring due to air pollution. This depletion of glaciers to be reduced by controlling air pollution. Industries strictly to be prohibited from emitting greenhouse gases like CO2, methane, Chlorine, and other obnoxious gases into the atmosphere that are increasing the earth’s temperature and causing depletion of glaciers. This can be reduced by installing pollution control equipment in the industries. Upgrading the plant equipment to stop the fugitive emission of pollutants. Similarly, the industrial wastewater generated to be treated in a water treatment plant before discharging it into our rivers and oceans to save water resources from getting polluted. This treated water to be used in agriculture and other domestic purposes. This will save a huge quantity of water for our future use.

    Ocean water:

    It is a great source of water, however, this can not be used in industries as well as in the domestic sector, as it is salty in nature. This requires desalination before use in industries and in the household. Countries like Israel, Australia, and other countries utilizing this water by using desalination technology.

    River water:

    The river is a good source of water, however, only a few big rivers are glacier feed and they remain alive in all seasons. Small rivers are rain feed they remain alive in the rainy season only. On big rivers, dams are being constructed nowadays to store more water for all-season use. The dam water being utilized for electricity generation, agriculture, and other purposes. River water to be protected from industrial and sewage pollution to keep our rivers alive for a longer time.

    Lake water:

    Lake water is a good source of water. They have a large quantity of water stored in them, they may be spring feed. they are deep and hence increases the water table of the surrounding area. Their water is utilized for agriculture and domestic purposes.

    Pond water:

    Pond water is a good source of water. They are smaller in size and usually store the rainwater. They can be deepened to increase their storage capacity and to increase the water table of the surrounding area. Their water is utilized for agriculture and domestic purpose.

    Springwater:

    Springwater can be a continuous source of water, as the spring flowing underground and starts flowing on the surface of the earth where it gets the opening in the earth. Continuously fowling spring water forms the lakes.

    Rainwater:

    It is a good source of water, however, it is available in the rainy season only. Efforts to be made to store the rainwater during the rainy season to use the same when required. In residential buildings, rainwater harvesting systems are to be installed to convey the rainwater to deep soil in the earth to increase the water table. Then the water can be fetched through deep well water pumps.

    Deep underground water:

    It is the water stored deep underground, which comes out from the rocks in the form of springs. Also, some rainwater penetrates the deep soil and gets accumulated there. This water can be fetched through deep bore well pumps for use. Deep bore wells can be recharged by rain harvesting.

    STEPS TO SAVE WATER CONSUMPTION:

    Following steps are to be undertaken to save water consumption
    1 Drip irrigation
    2 Rain harvesting
    3 Recycle municipal wastewater
    4 Enlarge and deepen ponds beside farms

    Drip irrigation:

    It is an efficient method of irrigation where plants are irrigated directly at the roots of the plants. As this is directly irrigating the roots, and not in a wide area of the plant hence reduces the water evaporation losses. This way it saves water consumption. Drip irrigation is carried out through piping, valve, and emitter. This system conveys water to the plant’s roots, above the surface, or underground.

    Do drip water irrigation as water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide.
    Do drip water irrigation as water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide.

    Rain harvesting

    It is the method of collecting building rooftop rainwater to the tank above ground or underground with the help of piping in building premises. This water can be utilized whenever required. The rainwater can also be diverted to a deep bore well for recharging of the well.

    Do Rainwater Harvesting as Water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide.
    Do Rainwater Harvesting as Water scarcity is a matter of concern worldwide.

    Recycle municipal wastewater:

    In big cities or metro cities, thousand of gallons of sewage water is generated which is treated in water treatment plants installed by municipal corporations. This treated water is utilized for farm irrigation purposes. This way a great saving in water consumption is done.

    Enlarge and deepen ponds beside farms:

    A number of large ponds are to be dug beside agricultural farms to collect the rainwater in them which will be utilized for irrigation of the farms. These ponds to be deepened to collect more water that increases the water table of the surrounding area.

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