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    THE WATER TODAY AND TOMORROW

    INTRODUCTION

    Water conservation to be done for tomorrow’s need. Our freshwater sources are depleting drastically, therefore conservation of water to be done. Water is the gift of God to the citizenry. It is an essential commodity for man. Without the use of water human survival on this earth is beyond imagination. Hence water conservation is needed. The same is the case of Animalia. Day-to-day domestic activities like cleaning, washing, cooking, drinking, and many more activities are hooked into uses of water. Even human blood plasma contains about 90% water. Body organs like the brain, kidney, and digestion system function are solely dependent on the consumption of water. Water conservation is required to save our earth.

    Deficient use of water can hamper the functioning of our body organs. Therefore, it is said that water is our life, without water, there is no life on this earth. Our earth occupies 3/4 parts of water, however, still, water has become a scarce commodity nowadays in this world. Many countries like Sudan, Venezuela, Ethiopia, Tunisia, and Cuba have become water-scared countries today. The human race is liable for making water a scarce commodity.

    The reasons for water scarcity are:

    (1) Industrialization, that polluted large amounts of water bodies on this earth.
    (2) The population has grown many folds so it becomes difficult to cater to the need for potable water to the large part of the community.
    (3) Lavish use of water in the domestic sector without accountability.
    (4) Lavish use of water in industrial, irrigation, and other recreation fields.

    SOURCES OF WATER:

    Glacier Water:

    Glaciers are our great source of potable water, however, nowadays they’re depleting in size and hence decreasing our source of potable water. This is happening due to the climatic changes that are occurring because of pollution. This depletion of glaciers can be reduced by controlling pollution. Industries strictly to be prohibited from the emission of CO2, Chlorine, and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This can be done by installing pollution control equipment in the industries. Upgrading the plant equipment to reduce the fugitive emission of pollutants, is also one of the measures to control climatic change.

    Ocean water:

    Ocean water is a great source of water, however, this can not be used in industries as well as in the domestic sector because it is salty in nature. Desalination of water to be carried out before use of ocean water in industries and in households. Countries like Israel, Australia, and other countries using ocean water by using desalination technology.

    River water:

    River water is a good source of water. Only a few big rivers are glacier feed, and they remain alive in all seasons. Small rivers are rain feed, they continue to be alive in the rainy season only. On big rivers, dams are being constructed nowadays to store more water to use for all-season. The dam water is used for electricity generation, agriculture, and other purposes. River waters to be protected from industrial and sewage pollution to keep our rivers alive for an extended lifetime.

    Lake water:

    Lake water is a good source of water. A large quantity of water is stored in them, they are spring feed. They are deep and hence increases the water level of the surrounding area. Domestic water supply is obtained from the lake.

    Pond water:

    Pond water is a good source of water. They are smaller and usually store the rainwater. They should be deepened to extend their storage capacity and to increase the water level of the encompassing area. Pond water is used for agriculture and domestic purpose.

    Springwater:

    Springwater is often an endless source of water, as the spring flowing underground and starts flowing on the surface of the earth where it gets the opening in the earth. Continuously fowling springs form the lakes.

    Rainwater:

    Rainwater is an honest source of water, however, it is available in the rainy season only. Efforts to be made to collect and store the rainwater during the rainy season to use the same when required. In residential buildings, rainwater harvesting systems to be installed to store a large quantity of water. The rainwater to be conveyed to deep soil in the earth to increase the water table. This groundwater is often fetched through deep groundwater pumps.

    Deep underground water:

    Deep underground water is the water stored deep underground, that comes out from the rocks in the form of springs. Also, some rainwater penetrates the deep soil and gets accumulated in the deep soil. This water is often fetched through deep bore well pumps for use. Deep bore wells are recharged by rainwater harvesting.

    STEPS TO SAVE WATER CONSUMPTION:

    1) To do drip irrigation
    2) To do rain harvesting
    3) To recycle municipal wastewater
    4 To enlarge and deepen ponds along the farm side.

    To do drip irrigation:

    Drip irrigation is an efficient method of irrigation where plants are irrigated directly at the roots of the plants. Plants are directly irrigated at the roots, hence reducing the water evaporation losses. This is the way to saves water consumption. Drip irrigation is administered through piping, valve, and emitter. This technique can be used to convey water to the plant roots above the surface or roots underground.

    Water-drip-irrigation

    To do rainwater harvesting:

    Rain harvesting is a method to collect building rooftop rainwater to the tank above ground or underground with the assistance of the piping system in the building premises. This water is often used when required. The rainwater to be used to recharge the deep bore well to keep it alive and full of water during the summer season.

    Water-conservation

    To recycle municipal wastewater:

    Metro city communities generate a thousand gallons of sewage water that is to be treated in wastewater treatment plants installed by municipal corporations. This treated water to be used for farm irrigation purposes. A good amount of water-saving can be obtained by recycling municipal wastewater. Similarly, domestic and industrial wastewater generated to be treated in wastewater treatment plants for recycling and use in agriculture and vegetation farming. This can also be used for other wash purposes. This can save an enormous amount of water for our future use.

    To enlarge and deepen ponds beside the farms:

    Huge ponds to be dug beside agricultural farms to collect a large amount of rainwater in them, that can be used for irrigation of the farms. These ponds to be deepened to collect more water that increases the water level of the encompassing area that keeps farm irrigated with less water consumption.

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