Types of centrifugal pumps are available today to cater to our different needs. The heart is the strongest pump in this world, created by the god for human beings and the animal. The heart runs without halt for a moment till man and animal exist in this world. Similarly, man has created Centrifugal pumps of different types. Centrifugal pumps of different types are available for domestic as well as industrial use. Human life is solely dependent on the use of centrifugal pumps.
TYPE OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS:
Dynamic type pumps:
(1) Single-stage horizontal centrifugal pumps.
(2) Multistage horizontal centrifugal pumps.
(3) Multistage submersible water pumps.
(4) Single-stage submersible pumps.
(5) Single-stage vertical shaft submersible pumps.
(6) Domestic water booster pumps.
(7) Deep well water hand pump.
(1)Single-stage horizontal Centrifugal Pumps:
Centrifugal pump works on the principle of centrifugal force. The rotational energy of the electric motor imparts mechanical energy to the water. Water flows on the impeller vane and creates a centrifugal pressure head. It causes water to move radially outward at a higher speed and enables the water to rise to the next level. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport the water or fluids from one place to another place. A vacuum is created at the eye of the impeller that sucks the fluid in the pump impeller. The fluid rotates along with the impeller vane and creates the pressure head in the fluid. Then the fluid is discharged through the pump discharge port. Centrifugal pumps are the simplest form of equipment. They are versatile and are used in many domestic and industrial sectors as listed below:
(2) Municipal water supply and sewerage water management,
(3) Power generation plants,
(4) Chemical plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemicals,
Centrifugal pumps parts:
(1) An impeller
(2) A volute casing
(3) A shaft
(4) shaft sleeve
(6) bearing housing or oil housing
(7) gland packing stuffing box and mechanical seal
(2) Multistage Horizontal Centrifugal Pump:
The multistage horizontal centrifugal pump consists of more than one stage. They are used for pumping services of moderate to high(total dynamic head). Each stage is having one impeller. Each stage functions as a separate pump. Multiple stages are installed on a single shaft in the single pump housing. Eight stages can be installed on a single shaft. Multistage pumps can be manufactured in single or double suction construction. Each stage of the pump increases the pressure head by the same amount and hence gives the total pressure head of the fluid at the point of discharge. These pumps are mainly used in desalination plants and power plants where boiler feeding requires high discharge pressure. It is used in reverse osmosis too.
(3) Multistage Submersible Water Pump:
A multistage Submersible pump is consists of a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor. The pump and motor are one unit hermetically sealed and submerged below the permanent water level in the well or sump. Submersible pumps are used to lift the water from the deep well to the surface of the earth as they create the high discharge head. The deep well water is stored in the water sumps. Water is then transferred to overhead tanks and supplied to the community for their day-to-day use by using gravity flow.
(4) Single-stage Submersible Pump:
Single-stage submersible pumps are hermetically sealed and submerged below the fluid level. They are used to handle dirty and contaminated water. They are mainly used for drainage, slurry, sewage water, and oil well services. They are also used to handle saltwater, dirt treatment, irrigation, fire fighting, mine de-watering, etc. These pumps are installed with nonclogging impellers, hence can handle large particle sizes in the dirty fluid.
(5) Domestic water booster Pump:
The domestic water booster pump is the simplest form of pump. It transfers the water for our household requirements from one place to another. Booster pumps are small in size and are also used to transfer water from underground storage to overhead tanks to make the water available for day-to-day use. Booster water pumps are used for car wash and gardening too.
(6)Vertical shaft single-stage submersible Pump:
A vertical shaft submersible pump is a single-stage centrifugal submersible pump. The vertical shaft pump is a radial split casing pump fitted with a radial impeller. It is also known as a vertical turbine pump. Vertical shaft pumps are used for many applications namely automatic drainage wastewater from pits, transferring condensate, heat transfer fluids, chemical aggressive fluids. These vertical centrifugal pumps are operated by directly mounted motors. It is used for fixed installation where the pump shaft column is immersed directly in the tank or deep well.
(7) Axial Flow Pump:
An axial flow pump is a pump that is consists of a propeller-type impeller in a pipe. The propeller can be driven directly by a sealed motor outside the pipe. It has no gearbox. These pumps are driven by petrol/diesel engines mounted to the pipe from outside. The motor shaft pierces the pipe and connected it to the impeller.
Axial flow pumps are used for high flow rates and low-pressure applications. They are used to circulate fluids in power plants, cooling towers, sewage digesters, and evaporators where high flow is the prime requirement. They are used for irrigation systems.