Potable water is the need of each Indian. Govt. of India has announced on 15th August 2020, to provide piped potable water to each house of urban as well as rural in India. This might require making a huge infrastructure. Potable water is the need of each Indian citizen to protect themself from various diseases, which are caused due to contaminated drinking water. This is a great initiative by the Govt. to provide potable water needed for each Indian. Provide Potable water to each Indian is a great task to be carried out. Potable water is the need for each Indian for safe drinking.
Potable water is the water that is safe for drinking. It is used for food preparation too. Potable water must be free from impurities like suspended rubbish, dissolved solids, and bacteria’s or germs. Potable water is extremely essential for our good health. A large amount of water is required to keep our body functions in order. It maintains our body heat and flushes out the toxins from our body organs. Many water bodies surrounding us are like:
(1) lake water
(3) river water
(4) spring water
(6) ocean water
THE CONTAMINATION OF WATER
All water available from the above sources can not be potable water. To convert them into potable water, some treatment is to be administered on them. Water bodies like river, pond, lake and rainwater contain impurities like germs, dirt, rubbish, and dissolved salts. Which are harmful to human health. The contaminated water may cause various kind of diseases that affect our intestine are as follows :
Bacteria present in contaminated water and stale food may cause dysentery. If acute dysentery occurs one has to replace the body fluid frequently to prevent dehydration. dehydration may cause loss of life. Symptoms of dysentery are stomach pain, fever, vomiting, dehydration.
This mainly affects children. This is known as infant paralysis. It is caused by contaminated water and stale food. This affects the medulla spinals of the person, as these advances cause paralysis in certain cases.
This also affects the intestine. It is caused by contaminated water, food and poor sanitation. It’s contagious. Symptoms may be high fever, muscle pain, and diarrhoea.
This is caused mainly due to bacteria present in the contaminated water. this happens frequently in rural areas where poor hygiene and sanitation existing this is often the deadly infection, to be attended to quickly. Symptoms are vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle cramps.
This is a gastrointestinal disease. Bacteria ingestion through contaminated Water and food may cause diarrhoea. In acute diarrhoea, there’s plenty of loss of water from the body. The body fluid to be replaced frequently by ingestion of electrolyte.
This infection is caused by the amoeba present in the drinking water. It affects our colon. This will also occur if contaminated water is employed for food preparation. This is often caused by eating raw food or fruits.
Symptoms are: abdominal pain, diarrhoea and blood in the stool
This is caused by contaminated drinking water and stale food. This affects our liver. It is often contagious. Poor hygiene and sanitation in rural areas are the most cause to occur this disease. Symptoms are yellow eyes, yellow urine, abdominal pain, vomiting, fatigue, and clay coloured bowel movement.
This is caused by consuming excess fluoride. This might contain within the drinking water. It affects our teeth and bones. Fluorides ingestion in large quantity causes skeletal problems in the human body.
DOMESTIC METHODS TO MAKE WATER SAFE
Pure and safe water is obtained by using the following methods.
BOILING OF WATER:
The boiling of water kills the germs present in the river, spring and groundwater. Add some drops of permanganate of potash, to disinfect the water.
IODINE IN WATER:
Iodine is employed to purify water. Few drops of- 2% iodine solution, disinfect the water. It also clears cloudy and coloured water.
CHLORINE IN WATER:
Chlorine gas is employed to disinfect the water. It kills the germs, bacteria’s, virus and pathogen’s present in the water. Chlorine tablets can also be added to the water for its purification.
Ultraviolet lamps are used within the water purification systems available within the markets. The use of ultraviolet rays for water purification is an effective method of disinfecting the water. Ultraviolet rays penetrate the harmful pathogens of our home water. They attack the genetic code(DNA) of those microorganisms present in the drinking to make the water safe for drinking.
MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT PLANT
To get safe water for our day to day use, water to be free from suspended and dissolved impurities. Also, the water should be free from germs, bacteria’s, virus, parasites and pathogens that are harmful to human health. To remove all these impurities from water, it’s been treated at a municipal water treatment plant by various techniques and methods. The sequence of techniques for water treatment are discussed as follows:
(1)Collection of raw water
(2)Screening of water
(3)Chemical addition in water
(4)Water coagulation and Flocculation
(5)Water sedimentation and Clarification
(8)Pure water storage
(9)Distribution of water
COLLECTION OF RAW WATER
Municipal corporations get the raw water from rivers, lakes and reservoirs. This water is pumped to the water treatment plant and picked up into the ponds or tanks known as settling tank. in the settling tank, large size impurities like the plant, trees, vegetation, rubbish are settled at the bottom of the tank.
SCREENING AND STRAINING
Water from the settling tank is transferred to the chemical addition tank. During transferring of the water from the settling tank to the chemical addition tank, it’s screened through wire mesh strainers to get rid of fine suspended impurities.
In the chemical addition tank, various coagulants are added to the water. A commonly used coagulant is aluminium Sulphate or Alum. Other efficient coagulants to be used are Ferrous Sulphate, Ferric Chloride, Sodium Aluminate, Activated Silica and Various compounds called polymers. Polymers added to the water as coagulant are of three kinds: (1) Cationic polymers(positively charged)
(2)anionic polymers (negatively charged(3) non-ionic polymers(neutrally charged). These chemicals are added to water and mixed well to form big and heavy clumps of suspended particles are called floc’.
WATER COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION
Then the water is transferred from the coagulation tank to flocculator for further process. Flocculation is The tank with agitators where flocculation is carried out at the slow speed of the agitator impeller. These are the tanks with agitators. Initially, the agitators are moved at a fast speed to mix the chemicals well with the water. Later the agitators are moved slowly that allow the suspended particles to mix to make the heavier floc. The chemicals are added to water to cause the suspended material to return together and form the clumps of huge particles. Clumps are formed during the process of coagulation or flocculation.
WATER SEDIMENTATION AND CLARIFICATION
Once the process of flocculation is over the water is transferred to the clarifier. In the clarifier, heavy floc formed within the flocculator is separated from the clear water. Clearwater received from the periphery of the clarifier is sent to the filtration bed. The floc and dirt collected from the centre of the clarifier and sent to sludge drying ponds.
Water received from the clarifier is almost clear from suspended impurities, however, for the further finish, it’s passed through different layers of sand, gravels and activated charcoal in the infiltration bed. The water is free from all suspended impurities when passed through the filtration bed. It contains germs, bacteria’s, virus and other pathogens so it’s sent for disinfection.
To remove the germs, bacteria’s, virus and pathogens from the water, it is to be disinfected. Usually, chlorine gas is passed through the water. This process of disinfection is called chlorination. During chlorination, water is tested frequently for the presence of harmful germs. If it is found free of germs then sent for storage as potable water.
WATER STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
Potable water is stored in the underground tank and overhead tanks from where it is being sent to various part of the city to cater daily need of the water of the community.