Urbanization is a global issue nowadays. All the countries in the world are facing the problem of urbanization. Urbanization means shifting people, from village to urban area (city area). The effect of urbanization on our cities is discussed here. Urbanization is increasing rapidly in our country. Our cities were small in size 10 years ago, now they are turned into metropolitan cities. Metropolitan cities have a population of more than 10 lakh. Our cities have become metropolitan cities because of the migration of people from nearby villages. Village people are migrating from village to metropolitan cities, for better living, for clean water, better sanitation, good employment opportunities, world-class education facilities for children, world-class treatment facilities, and good transportation facilities, etc. Urbanization has created five major challenge in front of our city management authorities as below:
(1) Clean water arrangement
(3) Garbage management
(4) Maintenance of road network
(5) Traffic control
With increased urbanization, demand for clean water is increased manyfold in metropolitan cities. To meet the clean water demand of citizens, the city administration has taken up the following steps:
(1) Transport water through pipelines, from far away river bed radial wells to city.
(2) Storing water in underground water tanks in various parts of the city. The city is divided into a number of zones for better management. Each zone has an underground water storage tank.
(3) Transport water to the overhead tank from the underground tank. Each zone has an overhead tank for water supply to various parts of the city.
(4) Cleaning and enlarging existing water storage ponds, to increase the water storage capacity.
(5) Educate people for rainwater harvesting, to save water for future use.
(6) Encourage people for plantation of trees, to increase rainfall on the earth. Forest areas are being increased by tree planting.
Due to increased urbanization, a huge amount of wastewater is being generated by the urban community in metropolitan cities. It is a challenging task for the city administration to treat wastewater for reuse. The city administration has taken up the following steps to tackle this issue:
(1) Huge integrated drainage systems are being set up.
(2) Outfalls of drainage water flowing in rivers are being stopped and drainage water is being diverted to the drainage system.
(3) Transfer sewage and wash water collected in local drainage pits to wastewater collection ponds away from the city.
(4) Wastewater collected in ponds are being treated and sent back into the rivers for reuse for vegetation growing.
As per the clean India movement drive, the city administration has taken up the following steps to tackle the garbage disposal issue in metropolitan cities:
(1) To do door-to-door garbage collection.
(2) Garbage collection is being made in wet bins and dry bins separately.
(3) Wet bins are for collecting biodegradable material like waste food, vegetation. Biodegradable waste material is used to convert into compost manure.
(4 Dry bins are mostly to collect recyclable materials like paper, glass, plastic, etc.
(5) Medical waste and hygiene waste like diapers, and sanitary pads, etc. are collected separately to dispose of them in incinerators.
(6) E-waste like computer parts and other electronic items are collected separately for disposal.
ROAD NETWORK UPGRADING
Urbanization has increased traffic and transportation many folds on our road network system. The city administration has taken the following steps to upgrade road networks to tackle traffic issues:
(1) Roads are being widened.
(2) Single roads are being converted into two road systems.
(3) Narrow bridges are being widened.
(4) New roads are being built.
TRAFFIC CONTROL UPGRADING
Due to urbanization, traffic control has become a critical issue nowadays. To tackle this issue, the city administration has taken up the following steps:
(1) Automatic traffic control systems are being installed at road junction points.
(2) Two-way roads are being built.
(3) In cities like Indore, robots are installed for traffic control.