Water is a God-created commodity. It is in the purest form in clouds before falling on the earth. Water is crystal clear when it is pure. It is so clear, that we can see through it. Causes of water pollution are contamination. Water gets contaminated easily because it is the best solvent available on this earth. The contamination of water starts instantly when it starts falling through the atmosphere. It carries water-soluble gases and particles from the atmosphere while raining. Waterfalls on the earth and gets mixed up with dust and dirt. As it moves on the earth, further gets mixed up with excreta of birds and animal. The causes of water pollution and its effects on human life are discussed here.
WATER SOURCES AND POLLUTION
Our water sources are:
Our water sources are getting contaminated and polluted through different routes.
During the rainy season, water runoff flows in the ponds and gets the water contaminated. This water runoff contains, dust and dirt, animal and bird excreta, vegetation, domestic wash.
Our lakes also get contaminated through water runoff. This water runoff contains, dust and dirt, animal and bird excreta, vegetation, domestic wash. It is also gets polluted due to algae formation.
Rivers are getting polluted through water runoff that contains, dust and dirt, animal and bird excreta, vegetation, domestic wash, industrial wash. It also gets polluted due to untreated industrial wastewater and untreated sewage wastewater from city municipalities. It contains chlorinated compounds, bacteria, viruses,, and heavy metals. Man and animal bathing on river banks, Decaying of dead animals and birds in the rivers, also pollute it.
Our seas and oceans are already contaminated with various kinds of salts. Its water is not suitable for domestic and industrial use. Desalination is required to make ocean water suitable for use. Ocean water further gets contaminated with untreated sewage water and untreated industrial wastewater. It also gets polluted with the decaying dead sea animals and birds and oil leakage through sea transport carriers. Ocean pollution through used plastic bottles and plastic bags is a matter of grave concern. It is diminishing our aquatic life.
Underground water is mostly in pure form. It gets water through natural springs under the earth. Underground water gets polluted through the disposal of hazardous solid waste in the deep soil.
STEPS TO STOP WATER POLLUTION
Mainly the human activities are responsible for water pollution. As per law nowadays polluting water is an offense. However, the law to be implemented strictly. Being responsible citizens we should follow the three ‘R’ formula to protect our water resources from contamination. The three R formula is REFUSE, REDUCE, RECYCLE. Practicing the three ‘R’ formulas we can reduce the causes of water pollution and its effects on human life.
REFUSE POLLUTING WATER
We should refuse, doing the following activities that pollute our water resources:
(1) Do not throw garbage or thresh in the ponds, lakes, rivers, and oceans.
(2) Do not bathe and wash clothes, near the bank of ponds, lakes, and rivers.
(3) Do not wash animals, near the bank of ponds, lakes, and rivers.
(4) Do not dump domestic and industrial wash into rivers and oceans.
(5) Build the embankment, surrounding the ponds and lakes, to prevent the runoff water to contaminate ponds and lakes.
(6) Do not drain oil and pesticide in the kitchen sink.
(7) Do not dump plastic bottles and bags into ponds, lakes, rivers, and oceans.
(8) Do not wash cars near the stormwater channel.
REDUCE WATER USE
We should reduce the consumption of water. It will save water for tomorrow’s use. It will also reduce the generation of wastewater. Following actions to be practiced to reduce water consumption:
(1) Do not keep the water tap running continuously while brushing your teeth. Run the tap intermittently.
(2) Do not use a running water hose, while washing your car, instead use a bucket of water with a wiper to clean the car.
(3) Wash your utensils in two tubs, instead of cleaning the utensils with a continuously running water tap.
(4) Have a bucket bath instead of a shower bath.
(5) Use drip irrigation method in farming.
(6) Use sprinkler watering in gardening.
(7) Install a rainwater harvesting system in the newly constructed house, to conserve water.
(8) Install solar panels for electricity generation in the house, which will reduce water consumption.
(9) Do not waste food, because to produce 1 kg of wheat requires water consumption of 500 to 4000-liters.
(10) Consume less amount of meat, because to produce 1 kg of meat requires water consumption 5000 to 20000-liters.
A huge amount of wash water and sewage water is generated by the urban community in metropolitan cities. This sewage water is to be diverted to municipal sewage water treatment plants for treatment, instead of dumping into ponds, rivers, and oceans. Similarly, wastewater generated by our industries is to be treated for reuse. Domestic and industrial waste after treatment can be used for farming, gardening, and wash purposes. We are treating wastewater, however, our wastewater treatment facilities capacity to be enhanced for 100% water treatment. Reuse of treated water will save a large amount of freshwater. The dumping of domestic and industrial wastewater into the river and ocean are the causes of water pollution and its effects are devastating on marine and human life.