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    NITROGEN AN USEFUL ATMOSPHERIC GAS

    INTRODUCTION

    Atmospheric Nitrogen is a useful gas. Our atmosphere is a mixture of various gases. Major gases are nitrogen 78% and oxygen 21%. Nitrogen and Oxygen are very needful gases for our life on earth. Nitrogen and Oxygen have many uses for man and animal. It is useful for plants to produce manure from dead living beings. The natural nitrogen cycle helps to decay dead animals in the soil. We will discuss the uses of nitrogen for man, animal, plant, and industry. We will study the atmospheric nitrogen cycle.

    NITROGEN PROPERTIES:

    (1) It is a colorless gas.

    (2) It is odorless and tasteless.

    (3) It does not support combustion.

    (4) It is not inflammable.

    (5) It is soluble in water.

    (6) Ii is lighter than air.

    (7) It is an inert gas, has an affinity to Hydrogen gas.

    NITROGEN COMMON USE:

    Atmospheric Nitrogen is used by living beings in the form of protein and amino acids.

    (1) Atmospheric Nitrogen is used by plants to produce manure.

    (2) Atmospheric Nitrogen is separated for producing Ammonia, and Nitric acid. Ammonia and Nitric acid are used to produce fertilizers.

    (3)Nitrogen is produced from the atmosphere. It is used as an inert gas to carry out certain processes in a chemical plant. It is also used in many industries.

    (4) Atmospheric Nitrogen is used to fill electric bulbs.

    (5) Atmospheric Nitrogen is used as a refrigerant to preserve biological specimens. To preserve foodstuff.

    (6) Atmospheric Nitrogen is used in gas-filled thermometers, to measure high temperatures.

    (7)Atmospheric Nitrogen used in Inflating vehicle tires

    NITROGEN USE IN INDUSTRIES:

    (1) Chemicals

    (2) Petrochemicals

    (3) Refineries

    (4) Fertilizers

    (5) Explosives

    NITROGEN PURGING

    Nitrogen purging is a method to remove oxygen presence. To do certain processes in chemical plants successfully. To confirm the removal of oxygen, nitrogen gas is blown through the system for some time. This process of nitrogen blowing through the system is known as purging.

    NITROGEN BLANKETING

    Nitrogen blanketing is done in chemical plants. It is done, where inflammable liquids are stored. The vapor pressure of these flammable liquids forms a combustible air-fuel mixture. To prevent the formation of a combustible mixture, these flammable liquids are stored under nitrogen pressure. This process of pressuring the system with nitrogen is known as nitrogen blanketing.

     

    Atmospheric Nitrogen Cycle
    Atmospheric Nitrogen Cycle

    Nitrogen is a needed constituent for plants and animals. It is present in the atmosphere.  Animals and plants are able to assimilate free atmospheric nitrogen. Animals get their nitrogen from the plants. Plants get the nitrogen from the soil in the form of fertilizer from the roots of leguminous plants. The living beings also give back nitrogen to the atmosphere and soil in the form of excreta and ammonium salt on decay. This is caused by ammonifying bacteria present in the soil. This the natural atmospheric nitrogen cycle.

    NITROGEN FOR FERTILIZERS:

    Produce fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen is the biggest industry in the world. These fertilizers are in the form of liquids and solids. The common type of these fertilizers are:

    (1) Ammonia

    (2) Ammonium Nitrate

    (3) Urea

    AMMONIA

    Ammonia is produced by reacting atmospheric nitrogen with hydrogen from natural gas at high pressure about 200 to 300 bar and temperature about 450 degrees Centigrade by using the Haber process. Anhydrous ammonia is produced and stored under pressure as a liquid. This anhydrous ammonia is used to produce Ammonium nitrate and urea.

    AMMONIUM NITRATE

    First Nitric acid is produced by mixing ammonia and air to produce nitric oxide and absorbed in water. Concentrated nitric acid about 70% and ammonia gas are mixed together in a tank, where a naturalization reaction takes place at about 180 degrees centigrade to produce ammonium nitrate.

    UREA

    Urea is produced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide at high pressure. It is a widely used fertilizer in the world for farming.

     

    Fertilizer from N2 Gas
    Fertilizer from N2 Gas

     

    NITROGEN FROM ATMOSPHERIC AIR:

    (1) PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION METHOD

    Nitrogen from atmospheric air is separated by the pressure swing adsorption method. Two vessels filled with adsorbent are used. Separation of nitrogen and oxygen from the air takes place in the adsorbent vessel filled with a carbon molecular sieve. Oxygen gas molecules are adsorbed in the carbon molecular sieve and nitrogen escapes through the sieve. It passes through another vessel and collected into the nitrogen receiver. The vessel which adsorbs the oxygen and water vapor is depressurized and taken for adsorbent regeneration.

    (2) PRODUCTION OF NITROGEN THROUGH MEMBRANE

    Nitrogen from atmospheric air is produced by the membrane method. It is carried out by passing pressurized air through a semi-permeable membrane. Separation of nitrogen from other components of air is achieved.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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